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Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style is published and updated by the University of Chicago. Its style guidance is used in many fields and is one of the most popular publication manuals. Because it serves a wide range of fields, Chicago style offers two distinct citation styles: Notes-Bibliography and Author-Date. Determine which style is appropriate for your work and use it consistently.

For more reference and citation information, please visit Chicago Style Citation Quick Guide or Chicago Manual of Style Online.

Chicago Note-Bibliography Guidance

Note-Bibliography style combines footnotes with a comprehensive bibliography. Footnotes are added in-text with sequential superscript numbers (1,2,3) and a corresponding note at the bottom of the page. Whenever possible, include page numbers in the citation. The first time a source is cited in a footnote, use the full note form. Each subsequent citation of that source can use the shortened form. When the same source is cited several times in a row, replace the shortened form with the phrase "Ibid." – remember to include the page numbers.


  1. Johan Huizinga. The Autumn of the Middle Ages (Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press, 1996), 31.
  2. Huizinga, Autumn, 43.
  3. Ibid., 44.

Bibliographic references are ordered by the author's last name. When referencing multiple works by the same author, order the works by publication date as well. All bibliographic references should use a hanging indent (the first line is flush with the left margin and every other line is indented .5 inch).


For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database used to access them. For other types of e-books, name the format used. If page numbers are not available, cite a section title, a chapter, or other number in the notes.

Notes Examples

4. Katie Kitamura, A Separation (New York: Riverhead Books, 2017), 25.

5. Sharon Sassler and Amanda Jayne Miller, Cohabitation Nation: Gender, Class, and the Remaking of Relationships (Oakland: University of California Press, 2017), 114.

6. Fyodor Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment, trans. Constance Garnett, ed. William Allan Neilson (New York: P. F. Collier & Son, 1917), 444,

Shortened Notes Examples

7. Kitamura, Separation, 91–92.

8. Sassler and Miller, Cohabitation Nation, 205.

9. Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment, 504–5.

Bibliography Examples

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Translated by Constance Garnett, edited by William Allan Neilson. New York: P. F. Collier & Son, 1917.

Kitamura, Katie. A Separation. New York: Riverhead Books, 2017.

Sassler, Sharon, and Amanda Jayne Miller. Cohabitation Nation: Gender, Class, and the Remaking of Relationships. Oakland: University of California Press, 2017.

Chapters from Books

In the note, cite specific pages. In the bibliography, include the page range of the chapter or section. When referencing an edited book as a whole, list the editors first.

Notes Examples

10. Mary Rowlandson, “The Narrative of My Captivity,” in The Making of the American Essay, ed. John D’Agata (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 19–20.

11. John D’Agata, ed., The Making of the American Essay (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 19–20.

Shortened Notes Examples

12. Rowlandson, “Captivity,” 48.

13. D’Agata, American Essay, 48.

Bibliography Examples

D’Agata, John, ed. The Making of the American Essay. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.

Rowlandson, Mary. “The Narrative of My Captivity.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 19–56. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.

Journal Articles

In the note, cite the specific pages. In the bibliography, include the page range of the entire article. For articles accessed online, include a DOI or if there is no DOI a URL instead. If neither are available, include the database where the article was accessed.

When citing articles with four or more authors, only list the first in the note followed by "et al." List up to ten authors in the bibliography – if there are more than ten authors, list the first seven followed by "et al."

Notes Examples

14. Ashley Hope Pérez, “Material Morality and the Logic of Degrees in Diderot’s Le neveu de Rameau,” Modern Philology 114, no. 4 (May 2017): 874,

15. Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem, “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality,” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 9–10,

16. Peter LaSalle, “Conundrum: A Story about Reading,” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95, Project MUSE.

17. Jesse N. Weber et al., “Resist Globally, Infect Locally: A Transcontinental Test of Adaptation by Stickleback and Their Tapeworm Parasite,” American Naturalist 189, no. 1 (January 2017): 45,

Shortened Notes Examples

18. Pérez, “Material Morality,” 880–81.

19. Keng, Lin, and Orazem, “Expanding College Access,” 23.

20. LaSalle, “Conundrum,” 101.

21. Weber et al., “Resist Globally,” 48–49.

Bibliography Examples

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1–34.

LaSalle, Peter. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95–109. Project MUSE.

Pérez, Ashley Hope. “Material Morality and the Logic of Degrees in Diderot’s Le neveu de Rameau.” Modern Philology 114, no. 4 (May 2017): 872–98.

Weber, Jesse N., Martin Kalbe, Kum Chuan Shim, Noémie I. Erin, Natalie C. Steinel, Lei Ma, and Daniel I. Bolnick. “Resist Globally, Infect Locally: A Transcontinental Test of Adaptation by Stickleback and Their Tapeworm Parasite.” American Naturalist 189, no. 1 (January 2017): 43–57.


Webpages and other website content can be cited as shown here. Specifically, the webpage name comes at the beginning of the full note and includes the URL. For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, include a date accessed.

Notes Examples

22. “Privacy Policy,” Privacy & Terms, Google, last modified April 17, 2017,

23. “History,” Columbia University, accessed May 15, 2017,

Shortened Notes Examples

24. Google, “Privacy Policy.”

25. Columbia University, “History.”

Bibliography Examples

Columbia University. “History.” Accessed May 15, 2017.

Google. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017.


Adapted from University of Chicago Press Turabian Citation Quick Guide Notes and Bibliography Samples