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Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style is published and updated by the University of Chicago. Its style guidance is used in many fields and is one of the most popular publication manuals. Because it serves a wide range of fields, Chicago style offers two distinct citation styles: Notes-Bibliography and Author-Date. Determine which style is appropriate for your work and use it consistently.

For more reference and citation information, please visit Chicago Style Citation Quick Guide or Chicago Manual of Style Online.

Chicago Author-Date Guidance

Author-Date style combines in-text citations with a comprehensive bibliography. Citations are added into a text in parentheses and include the authors' surnames and the year of publication separated only by a space. Page numbers can be added after the year separated with a comma. Include up to three authors if there are multiple authors to the work cited. For works with 4 or more authors, include only the first author followed by "et al."


  • (Kitamura 2017)
  • (Rowlandson 2016, 19–20)
  • (Keng, Lin, and Orazem 2017)
  • (Weber et al. 2017)

Bibliographic references are ordered by the author's last name. When referencing multiple works by the same author, order the works by publication date and replace the authors' name with a 3-em dash (———). All bibliographic references should use a hanging indent (the first line is flush with the left margin and every other line is indented .5 inch).


For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database used to access them. For other types of e-books, name the format used. If page numbers are not available, cite a section title, a chapter, or other number in the notes.

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. 1917. Crime and Punishment. Translated by Constance Garnett, edited by William Allan Neilson. New York: P. F. Collier & Son.

Kitamura, Katie. 2017. A Separation. New York: Riverhead Books, 2017.

Sassler, Sharon, and Amanda Jayne Miller. 2017. Cohabitation Nation: Gender, Class, and the Remaking of Relationships. Oakland: University of California Press.

Chapters from Books

In the bibliography, include the page range of the chapter or section. When referencing an edited book as a whole, list the editors first.

D’Agata, John, ed. 2016. The Making of the American Essay. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.

Rowlandson, Mary. 2016. “The Narrative of My Captivity.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 19–56. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.

Journal Articles

In the bibliography, include the page range of the entire article. For articles accessed online, include a DOI or if there is no DOI a URL instead. If neither are available, include the database where the article was accessed. List up to ten authors in the bibliography entry – if there are more than ten authors, list the first seven followed by "et al."

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. 2017. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring): 1–34.

LaSalle, Peter. 2017. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38, no. 1: 95–109. Project MUSE.

Pérez, Ashley Hope. 2017. “Material Morality and the Logic of Degrees in Diderot’s Le neveu de Rameau.” Modern Philology 114, no. 4 (May): 872–98.

Weber, Jesse N., Martin Kalbe, Kum Chuan Shim, Noémie I. Erin, Natalie C. Steinel, Lei Ma, and Daniel I. Bolnick. 2017. “Resist Globally, Infect Locally: A Transcontinental Test of Adaptation by Stickleback and Their Tapeworm Parasite.” American Naturalist 189, no. 1 (January): 43–57.


For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, include a date accessed.

Columbia University. n.d. “History.” Accessed May 15, 2017.

Google. 2017. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017.


Adapted from University of Chicago Press Turabian Citation Quick Guide Notes and Bibliography Samples