Skip to Main Content

Citation Station Online

Association for Computing Machinery

ACM Citation Style is used by journals of the Association for Computing Machinery and by scholarly journals in the field of computer science and information technology. For additional citation examples, visit the ACM Reference Formatting page.

ACM Guidance

Organize your ACM references in alphabetical order by author's last name and number them. The number in brackets (ex: [1]) is added in-text wherever the work is referenced. Author names are in standard order (First Name Last Name) but the initial may be used instead of the full first name.


Author A. Author and Author B. Author. Year. Title of Book; Publisher, Publisher Location. 


[1] Stephen Boyd and Lieven Vandenberghe. 2004. Convex Optimization. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA

[2] Charles A. R. Hoare. 1985. Communicating Sequential Processes. Prentice Hall.

[3] A. W. Roscoe. 2011. Understanding Concurrent Systems. Springer.

Chapters from Books

Conference proceedings are the most common form of edited book in the field of computer science. Chapters from books are referenced in the same way as papers presented in printed conference proceedings.

Author A. Author and Author B. Author. Year. Title of chapter. In Title of Book, Editor E. Editor (Ed.). Publisher, Publisher Location, ##–##. URL


[4] Carl G. Ritson, Adam T. Sampson, and Frederick R. M. Barnes. 2009. Multicore scheduling for lightweight communicating processes. In Coordination Models and Languages, John Field and Vasco T. Vasconcelos (Eds.). Springer, Berlin, Germany, 163–183.

[5] B. Luteberget, J. J. Camilleri, C. Johansen, and G. Schneider. 2017. Participatory verification of railway infrastructure by representing regulations in RailCNL. In Software Engineering and Formal Methods. A. Cimatti and M. Sirjani (Eds.), Springer International Publishing, 87–103.

Journal Articles

Author A. Author and Author B. Author. Year. Title of article. Title of Journal Vol.#, Issue# (Publication Date), ##–##. DOI


[6] Patricia S. Abril and Robert Plant. 2007. The patent holder's dilemma: Buy, sell, or troll? Commun. ACM 50, 1 (Jan. 2007), 36-44.

[7] Lowe Gavin. 2019. Discovering and correcting a deadlock in a channel implementation. Formal Aspects of Computing 31, 4 (Aug. 2019), 411–419.


Websites often list the name of a company or group rather than a named author. Use the company or group as the author of the website. Retrieval dates are usually only included in the reference when a publication date cannot be located on the website. In this case, use (n.d.) in place of the Year.

Author A. Author and Author B. Author. Year. Website Name. Retrieved Date from URL


[8] Jure Leskovec and Andrej Krevl. 2014. SNAP Datasets: Stanford Large Network Dataset Collection. Retrieved from

[9] Oracle. (n.d.). Oracle Help Center. Retrieved December 9, 2022 from util/concurrent/locks/Condition.htm